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A list of the sipunculan collection of the Department of Zoology, the University Museum, the University of Tokyo

Teruaki Nishikawa1) and Rei Ueshima2)

1)The Nagoya University Museum, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8601 Japan
2)Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan

Notes on type specimens in the collection

  When establishing a new species, Prof. Ikeda did not designate the name-bearing type by labeling “Type”, “Holotype”, and so on. Instead, some jars contain labels of species names followed by “n. sp.”, hand-written probably by Prof. Ikeda himself, and the specimens in such jars are regarded as the name-bearing types when label information is consistent with the original descriptions. The collection includes the name-bearing types or other type specimens of the following 6 species.

(1) Sipunculus amamiensis Ikeda (UMUTZ-Spc-45-1 and -Spc-46)

In the present collection there are two jars containing the labels of “Sipunculus amamiensis n. sp…”. The one (UMUTZ-Spc-45-1) is composed of 5 specimen from Koniya, Amami-Oshima Is. in 1901, was regarded as the type series of Sipunculus amamiensis Ikeda, 1904 by Cutler and Cutler (1981) with lectotype designation. Then, the single specimen in the other jar (UMUTZ-Spc-46) may possibly be another paralectotype of Sipunculus amamiensis Ikeda; this jar was rediscovered after Prof. Cutler and Ms. Cutler ’s survey in 1978.

This species was established by Ikeda (1904, pp. 36-37) for “numerous specimens … collected by me [=Prof. Ikeda], in April 1901, at Koniya (Amami-Oshima), and a single one at Naha (Okinawajima)”.  According to the label information, the specimen of Spc-46 was collected by Ikeda himself from “Wokaha Islet, Okinawa”; this locality belongs to Itoman district, south of Naha.  However, one of the labels therein clearly denotes “Sipunculus amamiensis n. sp.”, and therefore, “Naha” in the original description may possibly be an error.  Thus, the specimen of Spc-46 is here treated as “possibly a paralectotype of Sipunculus amamiensis Ikeda”.

(2) Phymosoma deani Ikeda (UMUTZ-Spc-41)

Cutler and Cutler (1981) rightly designated the lectotype of Phymosoma deani Ikeda, 1904 among the specimens in the jar of UMUTZ-Spc-41, represented by only a single jar which contains the label of “Phymosoma deanii [sic] n. sp.” in the collection. Some paralectotypes are deposited in the National Science Museum, Tokyo (see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 89).

(3) Phascolosoma japonicum Ikeda = Golfingia ikedai Fisher (UMUTZ-Spc-50)

 UMUTZ-Spc-50 contains much deteriorated (once dried-up) individuals, with the labels of “Phascolosoma japonicum n. sp.” and “I. Ikeda”, but without any information about locality and date of collection. Judging from the original description, this species was established for specimens from “coasts of Tokyo and Sagami Bays” (Ikeda, 1904, p. 7), and therefore, we may consider this material as a part of the syntypes. As the species name Phascolosoma japonicum Ikeda, 1904 was a junior synonym of P. japonicum Grübe, 1877, the former was replaced by the new name Golfingia ikedai Fisher, 1950. Therefore, the material of Spc-50 is a part of syntypes also of G. ikedai (see ICZN 4th ed., Art. 67.8; International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 2000).

When Cutler and Cutler (1981) designated the neotype for G. ikedai (=P. japonicum Ikeda), the material of Spc-50 was still unknown to exist. However, at present, “the neotype should be set aside (unless, following an application, the Commission rules that the neotype is to be retained as the name-bearing type)” (ICZN 4th ed., Art. 75.8).

(4) Phascolosoma nigrum Ikeda (UMUTZ-Spc-42)

 Cutler and Cutler (1981) rightly designated the lectotype of Phascolosoma nigrum Ikeda, 1904 among the specimens in the jar of UMUTZ-Spc-42, represented by only a single jar which contains the label of “Phascolosoma nigrum n. sp.” in the collection.  Some paralectotypes are now deposited in the National Science Museum, Tokyo (see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 68).

(5) Dendrostoma minor Ikeda (UMUTZ-Spc-23)

  The specimens of UMUTZ-Spc-23, collected from Funakawa, Akita Prefecture in August, 1900 are a part of syntypes, on the basis of the original description saying, “Specimens of the species have been collected at Funakawa in the Province of Ugo [present Akita Pref.], Misaki, Habu on Oshima (Izu Province), and Tanegashima; a small island near Kagoshima” (Ikeda, 1904, pp. 58-59).  The specimens are much deteriorated.

Cutler and Cutler (1981: 76) gave the comment that the specimens “may have been his type material. At some time in the past, however, they have completely dried out and are now shadows on the bottom of the jar. In view of this, specimens from our Sta. 8 are designated as neotype…, deposited at the National Science Museum, Tokyo…”. However, if one follows the ICZN 4th ed., their nomenclatural act seems invalid (see Art. 75). Thus, the specimens of Spc-23 still remain syntypes despite their limited scientific value. 

(6) Cloeosiphon japonicum Ikeda (UMUTZ-Spc-52)

  The specimens of UMUTZ-Spc-52, collected from Koniya, Amami-Oshima Is. on 30 March and Kachizato, Kakeroma Is. on 1 April, 1901, are a part of syntypes of Cloeosiphon japonicum Ikeda, 1904, because the original description says, “This species is one of the commonest Sipunculoids met with in the Riukiu [Ryukyu] and Amami-Oshima Islands.” (Ikeda, 1904, p. 49).


  Not included in the collection are the name-bearing types of the following species (listed in alphabetical order of generic and specific names), which had been probably lost: Aspidosiphon angulatus Ikeda, 1904; Aspidosiphon misakiensis Ikeda, 1904 (neotype designated; see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 79); Aspidosiphon spinalis Ikeda, 1904; Aspidosiphon uniscutatus Ikeda, 1904; Cloeosiphon carolinus Ikeda, 1924; Phascolion artificiosus Ikeda, 1904 (neotype designated; see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 71); Phascolion rectus Ikeda, 1904 (neotype designated; see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 74); Phascolosoma misakianum Ikeda, 1904 (neotype designated; see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 60); Phascolosoma okinoseanum Ikeda, 1904; Phascolosoma owstoni Ikeda, 1904; Phascolosoma quadratum Ikeda, 1905; Phascolosoma zenibakense Ikeda, 1924 (neotype designated; see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 70); Phymosoma nahaense Ikeda, 1904; Phymosoma onomichianum Ikeda, 1904 (neotype designated; see Cutler and Cutler, 1981, p. 88); Physcosoma yezoense Ikeda, 1924.

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